Frontoparietal Functional Connectivity in the Common Marmoset.
Ghahremani M, Hutchison RM, Menon RS, Everling S (2016) Cerebral Cortex
Theta and beta synchrony coordinate frontal eye fields and anterior cingulate cortex during sensorimotor mapping
Babapoor-Farrokhran S, Vinck M, Womelsdorf T, Everling S (2017) . Nature Communications 8, #13967
Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors Make Dissociable Contributions to Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Rule-Guided Oculomotor Behavior.
Vijayraghavan S, Major A,, Everling S (2016)
Cell Reports 16, 1–12
The frontal eye fields (FEFs) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated for cognitive saccade tasks, but whether this joined activation indexes coordinated activity underlying successful guidance of sensorimotor mapping is unknown. Here we test whether ACC and FEF circuits coordinate through phase synchronization of local field potential and neural spiking activity in macaque monkeys performing memory-guided and pro- and anti-saccades. We find that FEF and ACC showed prominent synchronization at a 3–9 Hz theta and a 12–30 Hz beta frequency band during the delay and preparation periods with a strong Granger-causal influence from ACC to FEF. The strength of theta- and beta-band coherence between ACC and FEF but not variations in power predict correct task performance. Taken together, the results support a role of ACC in cognitive control of frontoparietal networks and suggest that narrow-band theta and to some extent beta rhythmic activity indexes the coordination of relevant information during periods of enhanced control demands.
In contrast to the well established macaque monkey, little is known about functional connectivity patterns of common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) that is poised to become the leading transgenic primate model. Here, we used resting-state ultra-high-field fMRI data collected from anesthetized marmosets and macaques along with awake human subjects, to examine and compare the brain's functional organization, with emphasis on the saccade system. Exploratory independent component analysis revealed eight resting-state networks in marmosets that greatly overlapped with corresponding macaque and human networks including a distributed frontoparietal network. Seed-region analyses of the superior colliculus (SC) showed homolog areas in macaques and marmosets. The marmoset SC displayed the strongest frontal functional connectivity with area 8aD at the border to area 6DR. Functional connectivity of this frontal region revealed a similar functional connectivity pattern as the frontal eye fields in macaques and humans. Furthermore, areas 8aD, 8aV, PG,TPO, TE2, and TE3 were identified as major hubs based on region-wise evaluation of betweeness centrality, suggesting that these cortical regions make up the functional core of the marmoset brain. The results support an evolutionarily preserved frontoparietal system and provide a starting point for invasive neurophysiological studies in the marmoset saccade and visual systems.
Studies of neuromodulation of spatial short-term memory have shown that dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) stimulation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dose-dependently modulates memory activity, whereas D2 receptors (D2Rs) selectively modulate activity related to eye movements hypoth- esized to encode movement feedback. We examined localized stimulation of D1Rs and D2Rs on DLPFC neurons engaged in a task involving rule representation in memory to guide appropriate eye movements toward or away from a visual stimulus. We found dissociable effects of D1R and D2R on DLPFC physiology. D1R stimulation degrades memory activity for the task rule and increases stimulus-related selec- tivity. In contrast, D2R stimulation affects motor activity tuning only when eye movements are made to the stimulus. Only D1R stimulation degrades task performance and increases impulsive responding. Our results suggest that D1Rs regulate rule representation and impulse control, whereas D2Rs selectively modulate eye-movement-related dynamics and not rule representation in the DLPFC.